Merge tag 'spdx_identifiers-4.14-rc8' of git://

Pull initial SPDX identifiers from Greg KH:
 "License cleanup: add SPDX license identifiers to some files

  Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
  makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.

  By default all files without license information are under the default
  license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.

  Update the files which contain no license information with the
  'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally
  binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate

  This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart
  and Philippe Ombredanne.

  How this work was done:

  Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset
  of the use cases:

   - file had no licensing information it it.

   - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,

   - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,

  Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
  where non-standard license headers were used, and references to
  license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.

  The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied
  to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of
  the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver)
  producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.
  Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review
  of a few 1000 files.

  The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537
  files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the
  scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license
  identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any
  determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with
  the Linux Foundation.

  Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:

   - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.

   - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained
     >5 lines of source

   - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5

  All documentation files were explicitly excluded.

  The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
  identifiers to apply.

   - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
     considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
     COPYING file license applied.

     For non */uapi/* files that summary was:

       SPDX license identifier                            # files
       GPL-2.0                                              11139

     and resulted in the first patch in this series.

     If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
     Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that

       SPDX license identifier                            # files
       GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930

     and resulted in the second patch in this series.

   - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
     of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
     any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
     it (per prior point). Results summary:

       SPDX license identifier                            # files
       GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
       GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
       ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
       ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
       LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
       GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
       ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
       LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
       LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
       ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
       ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1

     and that resulted in the third patch in this series.

   - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that
     became the concluded license(s).

   - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected
     a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
     licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.

   - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
     resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply
     (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).

   - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
     confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

   - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
     the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
     in time.

  In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
  spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
  source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases,
  confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.

  Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
  FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
  disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.
  The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in
  part, so they are related.

  Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
  for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
  files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot
  checks in about 15000 files.

  In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
  copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect
  the correct identifier.

  Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
  inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial
  patch version early this week with:

   - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
     license ids and scores

   - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
     files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct

   - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch
     license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the
     applied SPDX license was correct

  This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
  worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
  different types of files to be modified.

  These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
  parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
  format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
  based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
  distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
  comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
  generate the patches.

  Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <>
  Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <>
  Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <>
  Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>"

* tag 'spdx_identifiers-4.14-rc8' of git://
  License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with a license
  License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with no license
  License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license