This document provides instructions to create a disk image needed to run the NPB tests with gem5 and points to an example gem5 configuration script needed to run these tests. The example script uses a pre-built disk-image.
The NAS parallel benchmarks (NPB) are high performance computing (HPC) workloads consisting of different kernels and pseudo applications:
There are different classes (A,B,C,D,E and F) of each workload based on the input data size. Detailed discussion of the data sizes is available here.
We make use of a modified source of the NPB suite for these tests, which can be found in
disk-images/npb/npb-hooks. We have added ROI (region of interest) annotations for each benchmark which is used by gem5 to separate simulation statistics between different regions of each benchmark. gem5 magic instructions are used before and after each ROI to exit the guest and transfer control to gem5 the gem5 configuration script. This can then dump and reset stats, or switch to cpus of interest.
We assume the following directory structure while following the instructions in this README file:
npb/ |___ gem5/ # gem5 source code | |___ disk-image/ | |___ shared/ # Auxiliary files needed for disk creation | |___ npb/ | |___ npb-image/ # Will be created once the disk is generated | | |___ npb # The generated disk image | |___ npb.json # The Packer script to build the disk image | |___ runscript.sh # Executes a user provided script in simulated guest | |___ post-installation.sh # Moves runscript.sh to guest's .bashrc | |___ npb-install.sh # Compiles NPB inside the generated disk image | |___ npb-hooks # The NPB source (modified to function better with gem5). | |___ linux # Linux source and binary will live here | |___ README.md # This README file
Assuming that you are in the
src/npb/ directory (the directory containing this README), first build
m5 (which is needed to create the disk image):
git clone https://gem5.googlesource.com/public/gem5 cd gem5/util/m5 scons build/x86/out/m5
cd disk-image # if packer is not already installed wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/packer/1.6.0/packer_1.6.0_linux_amd64.zip unzip packer_1.6.0_linux_amd64.zip # validate the packer script ./packer validate npb/npb.json # build the disk image ./packer build npb/npb.json
Once this process succeeds, the created disk image can be found on
npb/npb-image/npb. A disk image already created following the above instructions can be found, gzipped, here.
An example script with a pre-configured system is available in the following directory within the gem5 repository:
The example script specifies a system with the following parameters:
KVMfor startup and
TIMINGfor ROI execution). There are 2 CPU cores, each clocked at 3 GHz.
MESI_Two_Levelcache with 32 kB L1I and L1D size, and, 256 kB L2 size. The L1 cache(s) has associativity of 8, and, the L2 cache has associativity 16. There are 2 L2 cache banks.
x86-npb, the disk image created from following the instructions in this
The example script must be run with the
X86_MESI_Two_Level binary. To build:
git clone https://gem5.googlesource.com/public/gem5 cd gem5 scons build/X86/gem5.opt -j<proc>
Once compiled, you may use the example config file to run the NPB benchmark programs. You would need to specify the benchmark program (
sp) and the class (
C) separately, using the following command:
# In the gem5 directory build/X86/gem5.opt \ configs/example/gem5_library/x86-npb-benchmarks.py \ --benchmark <benchmark_program> \ --size <class_of_the_benchmark>
Description of the two arguments, provided in the above command are:
sp. For more information on the workloads can be found at https://www.nas.nasa.gov/.
D. More information regarding these classes are written in the following paragraphs.
A few important notes to keep in mind while simulating NPB using the disk-image from gem5 resources:
Frequires main memory sizes of more than 3 GB. Therefore, most of the benchmark programs for class
Dwill fail to be executed properly, as our system only has 3 GB of main memory. The
gem5 stdlibis currently limited to 3 GB of memory.
Dworks in the aforemented configuration.
x86-npb-benchmarks.pytakes class input of
The working status of these tests for gem5-20 can be found here.