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Python types
Available wrappers
All major Python types are available as thin C++ wrapper classes. These
can also be used as function parameters -- see :ref:`python_objects_as_args`.
Available types include :class:`handle`, :class:`object`, :class:`bool_`,
:class:`int_`, :class:`float_`, :class:`str`, :class:`bytes`, :class:`tuple`,
:class:`list`, :class:`dict`, :class:`slice`, :class:`none`, :class:`capsule`,
:class:`iterable`, :class:`iterator`, :class:`function`, :class:`buffer`,
:class:`array`, and :class:`array_t`.
Casting back and forth
In this kind of mixed code, it is often necessary to convert arbitrary C++
types to Python, which can be done using :func:`py::cast`:
.. code-block:: cpp
MyClass *cls = ..;
py::object obj = py::cast(cls);
The reverse direction uses the following syntax:
.. code-block:: cpp
py::object obj = ...;
MyClass *cls = obj.cast<MyClass *>();
When conversion fails, both directions throw the exception :class:`cast_error`.
.. _python_libs:
Accessing Python libraries from C++
It is also possible to import objects defined in the Python standard
library or available in the current Python environment (``sys.path``) and work
with these in C++.
This example obtains a reference to the Python ``Decimal`` class.
.. code-block:: cpp
// Equivalent to "from decimal import Decimal"
py::object Decimal = py::module::import("decimal").attr("Decimal");
.. code-block:: cpp
// Try to import scipy
py::object scipy = py::module::import("scipy");
return scipy.attr("__version__");
.. _calling_python_functions:
Calling Python functions
It is also possible to call Python classes, functions and methods
via ``operator()``.
.. code-block:: cpp
// Construct a Python object of class Decimal
py::object pi = Decimal("3.14159");
.. code-block:: cpp
// Use Python to make our directories
py::object os = py::module::import("os");
py::object makedirs = os.attr("makedirs");
One can convert the result obtained from Python to a pure C++ version
if a ``py::class_`` or type conversion is defined.
.. code-block:: cpp
py::function f = <...>;
py::object result_py = f(1234, "hello", some_instance);
MyClass &result = result_py.cast<MyClass>();
.. _calling_python_methods:
Calling Python methods
To call an object's method, one can again use ``.attr`` to obtain access to the
Python method.
.. code-block:: cpp
// Calculate e^π in decimal
py::object exp_pi = pi.attr("exp")();
In the example above ``pi.attr("exp")`` is a *bound method*: it will always call
the method for that same instance of the class. Alternately one can create an
*unbound method* via the Python class (instead of instance) and pass the ``self``
object explicitly, followed by other arguments.
.. code-block:: cpp
py::object decimal_exp = Decimal.attr("exp");
// Compute the e^n for n=0..4
for (int n = 0; n < 5; n++) {
Keyword arguments
Keyword arguments are also supported. In Python, there is the usual call syntax:
.. code-block:: python
def f(number, say, to):
... # function code
f(1234, say="hello", to=some_instance) # keyword call in Python
In C++, the same call can be made using:
.. code-block:: cpp
using namespace pybind11::literals; // to bring in the `_a` literal
f(1234, "say"_a="hello", "to"_a=some_instance); // keyword call in C++
Unpacking arguments
Unpacking of ``*args`` and ``**kwargs`` is also possible and can be mixed with
other arguments:
.. code-block:: cpp
// * unpacking
py::tuple args = py::make_tuple(1234, "hello", some_instance);
// ** unpacking
py::dict kwargs = py::dict("number"_a=1234, "say"_a="hello", "to"_a=some_instance);
// mixed keywords, * and ** unpacking
py::tuple args = py::make_tuple(1234);
py::dict kwargs = py::dict("to"_a=some_instance);
f(*args, "say"_a="hello", **kwargs);
Generalized unpacking according to PEP448_ is also supported:
.. code-block:: cpp
py::dict kwargs1 = py::dict("number"_a=1234);
py::dict kwargs2 = py::dict("to"_a=some_instance);
f(**kwargs1, "say"_a="hello", **kwargs2);
.. seealso::
The file :file:`tests/test_pytypes.cpp` contains a complete
example that demonstrates passing native Python types in more detail. The
file :file:`tests/test_callbacks.cpp` presents a few examples of calling
Python functions from C++, including keywords arguments and unpacking.
.. _PEP448: