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GPIO Mappings
This document explains how GPIOs can be assigned to given devices and functions.
Note that it only applies to the new descriptor-based interface. For a
description of the deprecated integer-based GPIO interface please refer to
gpio-legacy.txt (actually, there is no real mapping possible with the old
interface; you just fetch an integer from somewhere and request the
corresponding GPIO.
Platforms that make use of GPIOs must select ARCH_REQUIRE_GPIOLIB (if GPIO usage
is mandatory) or ARCH_WANT_OPTIONAL_GPIOLIB (if GPIO support can be omitted) in
their Kconfig. Then, how GPIOs are mapped depends on what the platform uses to
describe its hardware layout. Currently, mappings can be defined through device
tree, ACPI, and platform data.
Device Tree
GPIOs can easily be mapped to devices and functions in the device tree. The
exact way to do it depends on the GPIO controller providing the GPIOs, see the
device tree bindings for your controller.
GPIOs mappings are defined in the consumer device's node, in a property named
either <function>-gpios or <function>-gpio, where <function> is the function
the driver will request through gpiod_get(). For example:
foo_device {
compatible = "acme,foo";
led-gpios = <&gpio 15 GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH>, /* red */
<&gpio 16 GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH>, /* green */
<&gpio 17 GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH>; /* blue */
power-gpio = <&gpio 1 GPIO_ACTIVE_LOW>;
This property will make GPIOs 15, 16 and 17 available to the driver under the
"led" function, and GPIO 1 as the "power" GPIO:
struct gpio_desc *red, *green, *blue, *power;
red = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 0, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
green = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 1, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
blue = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 2, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
power = gpiod_get(dev, "power", GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
The led GPIOs will be active-high, while the power GPIO will be active-low (i.e.
gpiod_is_active_low(power) will be true).
The second parameter of the gpiod_get() functions, the con_id string, has to be
the <function>-prefix of the GPIO suffixes ("gpios" or "gpio", automatically
looked up by the gpiod functions internally) used in the device tree. With above
"led-gpios" example, use the prefix without the "-" as con_id parameter: "led".
Internally, the GPIO subsystem prefixes the GPIO suffix ("gpios" or "gpio")
with the string passed in con_id to get the resulting string
(snprintf(... "%s-%s", con_id, gpio_suffixes[]).
ACPI also supports function names for GPIOs in a similar fashion to DT.
The above DT example can be converted to an equivalent ACPI description
with the help of _DSD (Device Specific Data), introduced in ACPI 5.1:
Device (FOO) {
Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate () {
GpioIo (Exclusive, ..., IoRestrictionOutputOnly,
"\\_SB.GPI0") {15} // red
GpioIo (Exclusive, ..., IoRestrictionOutputOnly,
"\\_SB.GPI0") {16} // green
GpioIo (Exclusive, ..., IoRestrictionOutputOnly,
"\\_SB.GPI0") {17} // blue
GpioIo (Exclusive, ..., IoRestrictionOutputOnly,
"\\_SB.GPI0") {1} // power
Name (_DSD, Package () {
Package () {
Package () {
Package () {
^FOO, 0, 0, 1,
^FOO, 1, 0, 1,
^FOO, 2, 0, 1,
Package () {
Package () {^FOO, 3, 0, 0},
For more information about the ACPI GPIO bindings see
Platform Data
Finally, GPIOs can be bound to devices and functions using platform data. Board
files that desire to do so need to include the following header:
#include <linux/gpio/machine.h>
GPIOs are mapped by the means of tables of lookups, containing instances of the
gpiod_lookup structure. Two macros are defined to help declaring such mappings:
GPIO_LOOKUP(chip_label, chip_hwnum, dev_id, con_id, flags)
GPIO_LOOKUP_IDX(chip_label, chip_hwnum, dev_id, con_id, idx, flags)
- chip_label is the label of the gpiod_chip instance providing the GPIO
- chip_hwnum is the hardware number of the GPIO within the chip
- dev_id is the identifier of the device that will make use of this GPIO. It
can be NULL, in which case it will be matched for calls to gpiod_get()
with a NULL device.
- con_id is the name of the GPIO function from the device point of view. It
can be NULL, in which case it will match any function.
- idx is the index of the GPIO within the function.
- flags is defined to specify the following properties:
* GPIOF_ACTIVE_LOW - to configure the GPIO as active-low
* GPIOF_OPEN_DRAIN - GPIO pin is open drain type.
* GPIOF_OPEN_SOURCE - GPIO pin is open source type.
In the future, these flags might be extended to support more properties.
Note that GPIO_LOOKUP() is just a shortcut to GPIO_LOOKUP_IDX() where idx = 0.
A lookup table can then be defined as follows, with an empty entry defining its
struct gpiod_lookup_table gpios_table = {
.dev_id = "foo.0",
.table = {
GPIO_LOOKUP_IDX("gpio.0", 15, "led", 0, GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH),
GPIO_LOOKUP_IDX("gpio.0", 16, "led", 1, GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH),
GPIO_LOOKUP_IDX("gpio.0", 17, "led", 2, GPIO_ACTIVE_HIGH),
GPIO_LOOKUP("gpio.0", 1, "power", GPIO_ACTIVE_LOW),
{ },
And the table can be added by the board code as follows:
The driver controlling "foo.0" will then be able to obtain its GPIOs as follows:
struct gpio_desc *red, *green, *blue, *power;
red = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 0, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
green = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 1, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
blue = gpiod_get_index(dev, "led", 2, GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
power = gpiod_get(dev, "power", GPIOD_OUT_HIGH);
Since the "led" GPIOs are mapped as active-high, this example will switch their
signals to 1, i.e. enabling the LEDs. And for the "power" GPIO, which is mapped
as active-low, its actual signal will be 0 after this code. Contrary to the legacy
integer GPIO interface, the active-low property is handled during mapping and is
thus transparent to GPIO consumers.