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* Copyright (c) 2010-2018 ARM Limited
* All rights reserved
* The license below extends only to copyright in the software and shall
* not be construed as granting a license to any other intellectual
* property including but not limited to intellectual property relating
* to a hardware implementation of the functionality of the software
* licensed hereunder. You may use the software subject to the license
* terms below provided that you ensure that this notice is replicated
* unmodified and in its entirety in all distributions of the software,
* modified or unmodified, in source code or in binary form.
* Copyright (c) 2013 Amin Farmahini-Farahani
* All rights reserved.
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
* met: redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer;
* redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution;
* neither the name of the copyright holders nor the names of its
* contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
* this software without specific prior written permission.
* Authors: Andreas Hansson
* Ani Udipi
* Neha Agarwal
* Omar Naji
* Wendy Elsasser
* Radhika Jagtap
#include "mem/dram_ctrl.hh"
#include "base/bitfield.hh"
#include "base/trace.hh"
#include "debug/DRAM.hh"
#include "debug/DRAMPower.hh"
#include "debug/DRAMState.hh"
#include "debug/Drain.hh"
#include "sim/system.hh"
using namespace std;
using namespace Data;
DRAMCtrl::DRAMCtrl(const DRAMCtrlParams* p) :
port(name() + ".port", *this), isTimingMode(false),
retryRdReq(false), retryWrReq(false),
nextReqEvent([this]{ processNextReqEvent(); }, name()),
respondEvent([this]{ processRespondEvent(); }, name()),
deviceBusWidth(p->device_bus_width), burstLength(p->burst_length),
burstSize((devicesPerRank * burstLength * deviceBusWidth) / 8),
rowBufferSize(devicesPerRank * deviceRowBufferSize),
columnsPerRowBuffer(rowBufferSize / burstSize),
columnsPerStripe(range.interleaved() ? range.granularity() / burstSize : 1),
bankGroupArch(p->bank_groups_per_rank > 0),
banksPerRank(p->banks_per_rank), channels(p->channels), rowsPerBank(0),
writeHighThreshold(writeBufferSize * p->write_high_thresh_perc / 100.0),
writeLowThreshold(writeBufferSize * p->write_low_thresh_perc / 100.0),
writesThisTime(0), readsThisTime(0),
tCK(p->tCK), tRTW(p->tRTW), tCS(p->tCS), tBURST(p->tBURST),
tCCD_L(p->tCCD_L), tRCD(p->tRCD), tCL(p->tCL), tRP(p->tRP), tRAS(p->tRAS),
tWR(p->tWR), tRTP(p->tRTP), tRFC(p->tRFC), tREFI(p->tREFI), tRRD(p->tRRD),
tRRD_L(p->tRRD_L), tXAW(p->tXAW), tXP(p->tXP), tXS(p->tXS),
activationLimit(p->activation_limit), rankToRankDly(tCS + tBURST),
wrToRdDly(tCL + tBURST + p->tWTR), rdToWrDly(tRTW + tBURST),
memSchedPolicy(p->mem_sched_policy), addrMapping(p->addr_mapping),
nextBurstAt(0), prevArrival(0),
nextReqTime(0), activeRank(0), timeStampOffset(0),
// sanity check the ranks since we rely on bit slicing for the
// address decoding
fatal_if(!isPowerOf2(ranksPerChannel), "DRAM rank count of %d is not "
"allowed, must be a power of two\n", ranksPerChannel);
fatal_if(!isPowerOf2(burstSize), "DRAM burst size %d is not allowed, "
"must be a power of two\n", burstSize);
for (int i = 0; i < ranksPerChannel; i++) {
Rank* rank = new Rank(*this, p, i);
// perform a basic check of the write thresholds
if (p->write_low_thresh_perc >= p->write_high_thresh_perc)
fatal("Write buffer low threshold %d must be smaller than the "
"high threshold %d\n", p->write_low_thresh_perc,
// determine the rows per bank by looking at the total capacity
uint64_t capacity = ULL(1) << ceilLog2(AbstractMemory::size());
// determine the dram actual capacity from the DRAM config in Mbytes
uint64_t deviceCapacity = deviceSize / (1024 * 1024) * devicesPerRank *
// if actual DRAM size does not match memory capacity in system warn!
if (deviceCapacity != capacity / (1024 * 1024))
warn("DRAM device capacity (%d Mbytes) does not match the "
"address range assigned (%d Mbytes)\n", deviceCapacity,
capacity / (1024 * 1024));
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Memory capacity %lld (%lld) bytes\n", capacity,
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Row buffer size %d bytes with %d columns per row buffer\n",
rowBufferSize, columnsPerRowBuffer);
rowsPerBank = capacity / (rowBufferSize * banksPerRank * ranksPerChannel);
// some basic sanity checks
if (tREFI <= tRP || tREFI <= tRFC) {
fatal("tREFI (%d) must be larger than tRP (%d) and tRFC (%d)\n",
tREFI, tRP, tRFC);
// basic bank group architecture checks ->
if (bankGroupArch) {
// must have at least one bank per bank group
if (bankGroupsPerRank > banksPerRank) {
fatal("banks per rank (%d) must be equal to or larger than "
"banks groups per rank (%d)\n",
banksPerRank, bankGroupsPerRank);
// must have same number of banks in each bank group
if ((banksPerRank % bankGroupsPerRank) != 0) {
fatal("Banks per rank (%d) must be evenly divisible by bank groups "
"per rank (%d) for equal banks per bank group\n",
banksPerRank, bankGroupsPerRank);
// tCCD_L should be greater than minimal, back-to-back burst delay
if (tCCD_L <= tBURST) {
fatal("tCCD_L (%d) should be larger than tBURST (%d) when "
"bank groups per rank (%d) is greater than 1\n",
tCCD_L, tBURST, bankGroupsPerRank);
// tCCD_L_WR should be greater than minimal, back-to-back burst delay
if (tCCD_L_WR <= tBURST) {
fatal("tCCD_L_WR (%d) should be larger than tBURST (%d) when "
"bank groups per rank (%d) is greater than 1\n",
tCCD_L_WR, tBURST, bankGroupsPerRank);
// tRRD_L is greater than minimal, same bank group ACT-to-ACT delay
// some datasheets might specify it equal to tRRD
if (tRRD_L < tRRD) {
fatal("tRRD_L (%d) should be larger than tRRD (%d) when "
"bank groups per rank (%d) is greater than 1\n",
tRRD_L, tRRD, bankGroupsPerRank);
if (!port.isConnected()) {
fatal("DRAMCtrl %s is unconnected!\n", name());
} else {
// a bit of sanity checks on the interleaving, save it for here to
// ensure that the system pointer is initialised
if (range.interleaved()) {
if (channels != range.stripes())
fatal("%s has %d interleaved address stripes but %d channel(s)\n",
name(), range.stripes(), channels);
if (addrMapping == Enums::RoRaBaChCo) {
if (rowBufferSize != range.granularity()) {
fatal("Channel interleaving of %s doesn't match RoRaBaChCo "
"address map\n", name());
} else if (addrMapping == Enums::RoRaBaCoCh ||
addrMapping == Enums::RoCoRaBaCh) {
// for the interleavings with channel bits in the bottom,
// if the system uses a channel striping granularity that
// is larger than the DRAM burst size, then map the
// sequential accesses within a stripe to a number of
// columns in the DRAM, effectively placing some of the
// lower-order column bits as the least-significant bits
// of the address (above the ones denoting the burst size)
assert(columnsPerStripe >= 1);
// channel striping has to be done at a granularity that
// is equal or larger to a cache line
if (system()->cacheLineSize() > range.granularity()) {
fatal("Channel interleaving of %s must be at least as large "
"as the cache line size\n", name());
// ...and equal or smaller than the row-buffer size
if (rowBufferSize < range.granularity()) {
fatal("Channel interleaving of %s must be at most as large "
"as the row-buffer size\n", name());
// this is essentially the check above, so just to be sure
assert(columnsPerStripe <= columnsPerRowBuffer);
// remember the memory system mode of operation
isTimingMode = system()->isTimingMode();
if (isTimingMode) {
// timestamp offset should be in clock cycles for DRAMPower
timeStampOffset = divCeil(curTick(), tCK);
// update the start tick for the precharge accounting to the
// current tick
for (auto r : ranks) {
r->startup(curTick() + tREFI - tRP);
// shift the bus busy time sufficiently far ahead that we never
// have to worry about negative values when computing the time for
// the next request, this will add an insignificant bubble at the
// start of simulation
nextBurstAt = curTick() + tRP + tRCD;
DRAMCtrl::recvAtomic(PacketPtr pkt)
DPRINTF(DRAM, "recvAtomic: %s 0x%x\n", pkt->cmdString(), pkt->getAddr());
panic_if(pkt->cacheResponding(), "Should not see packets where cache "
"is responding");
// do the actual memory access and turn the packet into a response
Tick latency = 0;
if (pkt->hasData()) {
// this value is not supposed to be accurate, just enough to
// keep things going, mimic a closed page
latency = tRP + tRCD + tCL;
return latency;
DRAMCtrl::readQueueFull(unsigned int neededEntries) const
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Read queue limit %d, current size %d, entries needed %d\n",
readBufferSize, readQueue.size() + respQueue.size(),
(readQueue.size() + respQueue.size() + neededEntries) > readBufferSize;
DRAMCtrl::writeQueueFull(unsigned int neededEntries) const
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Write queue limit %d, current size %d, entries needed %d\n",
writeBufferSize, writeQueue.size(), neededEntries);
return (writeQueue.size() + neededEntries) > writeBufferSize;
DRAMCtrl::decodeAddr(PacketPtr pkt, Addr dramPktAddr, unsigned size,
bool isRead)
// decode the address based on the address mapping scheme, with
// Ro, Ra, Co, Ba and Ch denoting row, rank, column, bank and
// channel, respectively
uint8_t rank;
uint8_t bank;
// use a 64-bit unsigned during the computations as the row is
// always the top bits, and check before creating the DRAMPacket
uint64_t row;
// truncate the address to a DRAM burst, which makes it unique to
// a specific column, row, bank, rank and channel
Addr addr = dramPktAddr / burstSize;
// we have removed the lowest order address bits that denote the
// position within the column
if (addrMapping == Enums::RoRaBaChCo) {
// the lowest order bits denote the column to ensure that
// sequential cache lines occupy the same row
addr = addr / columnsPerRowBuffer;
// take out the channel part of the address
addr = addr / channels;
// after the channel bits, get the bank bits to interleave
// over the banks
bank = addr % banksPerRank;
addr = addr / banksPerRank;
// after the bank, we get the rank bits which thus interleaves
// over the ranks
rank = addr % ranksPerChannel;
addr = addr / ranksPerChannel;
// lastly, get the row bits, no need to remove them from addr
row = addr % rowsPerBank;
} else if (addrMapping == Enums::RoRaBaCoCh) {
// take out the lower-order column bits
addr = addr / columnsPerStripe;
// take out the channel part of the address
addr = addr / channels;
// next, the higher-order column bites
addr = addr / (columnsPerRowBuffer / columnsPerStripe);
// after the column bits, we get the bank bits to interleave
// over the banks
bank = addr % banksPerRank;
addr = addr / banksPerRank;
// after the bank, we get the rank bits which thus interleaves
// over the ranks
rank = addr % ranksPerChannel;
addr = addr / ranksPerChannel;
// lastly, get the row bits, no need to remove them from addr
row = addr % rowsPerBank;
} else if (addrMapping == Enums::RoCoRaBaCh) {
// optimise for closed page mode and utilise maximum
// parallelism of the DRAM (at the cost of power)
// take out the lower-order column bits
addr = addr / columnsPerStripe;
// take out the channel part of the address, not that this has
// to match with how accesses are interleaved between the
// controllers in the address mapping
addr = addr / channels;
// start with the bank bits, as this provides the maximum
// opportunity for parallelism between requests
bank = addr % banksPerRank;
addr = addr / banksPerRank;
// next get the rank bits
rank = addr % ranksPerChannel;
addr = addr / ranksPerChannel;
// next, the higher-order column bites
addr = addr / (columnsPerRowBuffer / columnsPerStripe);
// lastly, get the row bits, no need to remove them from addr
row = addr % rowsPerBank;
} else
panic("Unknown address mapping policy chosen!");
assert(rank < ranksPerChannel);
assert(bank < banksPerRank);
assert(row < rowsPerBank);
assert(row < Bank::NO_ROW);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Address: %lld Rank %d Bank %d Row %d\n",
dramPktAddr, rank, bank, row);
// create the corresponding DRAM packet with the entry time and
// ready time set to the current tick, the latter will be updated
// later
uint16_t bank_id = banksPerRank * rank + bank;
return new DRAMPacket(pkt, isRead, rank, bank, row, bank_id, dramPktAddr,
size, ranks[rank]->banks[bank], *ranks[rank]);
DRAMCtrl::addToReadQueue(PacketPtr pkt, unsigned int pktCount)
// only add to the read queue here. whenever the request is
// eventually done, set the readyTime, and call schedule()
assert(pktCount != 0);
// if the request size is larger than burst size, the pkt is split into
// multiple DRAM packets
// Note if the pkt starting address is not aligened to burst size, the
// address of first DRAM packet is kept unaliged. Subsequent DRAM packets
// are aligned to burst size boundaries. This is to ensure we accurately
// check read packets against packets in write queue.
Addr addr = pkt->getAddr();
unsigned pktsServicedByWrQ = 0;
BurstHelper* burst_helper = NULL;
for (int cnt = 0; cnt < pktCount; ++cnt) {
unsigned size = std::min((addr | (burstSize - 1)) + 1,
pkt->getAddr() + pkt->getSize()) - addr;
// First check write buffer to see if the data is already at
// the controller
bool foundInWrQ = false;
Addr burst_addr = burstAlign(addr);
// if the burst address is not present then there is no need
// looking any further
if (isInWriteQueue.find(burst_addr) != isInWriteQueue.end()) {
for (const auto& p : writeQueue) {
// check if the read is subsumed in the write queue
// packet we are looking at
if (p->addr <= addr && (addr + size) <= (p->addr + p->size)) {
foundInWrQ = true;
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Read to addr %lld with size %d serviced by "
"write queue\n", addr, size);
bytesReadWrQ += burstSize;
// If not found in the write q, make a DRAM packet and
// push it onto the read queue
if (!foundInWrQ) {
// Make the burst helper for split packets
if (pktCount > 1 && burst_helper == NULL) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Read to addr %lld translates to %d "
"dram requests\n", pkt->getAddr(), pktCount);
burst_helper = new BurstHelper(pktCount);
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = decodeAddr(pkt, addr, size, true);
dram_pkt->burstHelper = burst_helper;
rdQLenPdf[readQueue.size() + respQueue.size()]++;
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Adding to read queue\n");
// increment read entries of the rank
// Update stats
avgRdQLen = readQueue.size() + respQueue.size();
// Starting address of next dram pkt (aligend to burstSize boundary)
addr = (addr | (burstSize - 1)) + 1;
// If all packets are serviced by write queue, we send the repsonse back
if (pktsServicedByWrQ == pktCount) {
accessAndRespond(pkt, frontendLatency);
// Update how many split packets are serviced by write queue
if (burst_helper != NULL)
burst_helper->burstsServiced = pktsServicedByWrQ;
// If we are not already scheduled to get a request out of the
// queue, do so now
if (!nextReqEvent.scheduled()) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Request scheduled immediately\n");
schedule(nextReqEvent, curTick());
DRAMCtrl::addToWriteQueue(PacketPtr pkt, unsigned int pktCount)
// only add to the write queue here. whenever the request is
// eventually done, set the readyTime, and call schedule()
// if the request size is larger than burst size, the pkt is split into
// multiple DRAM packets
Addr addr = pkt->getAddr();
for (int cnt = 0; cnt < pktCount; ++cnt) {
unsigned size = std::min((addr | (burstSize - 1)) + 1,
pkt->getAddr() + pkt->getSize()) - addr;
// see if we can merge with an existing item in the write
// queue and keep track of whether we have merged or not
bool merged = isInWriteQueue.find(burstAlign(addr)) !=
// if the item was not merged we need to create a new write
// and enqueue it
if (!merged) {
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = decodeAddr(pkt, addr, size, false);
assert(writeQueue.size() < writeBufferSize);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Adding to write queue\n");
assert(writeQueue.size() == isInWriteQueue.size());
// Update stats
avgWrQLen = writeQueue.size();
// increment write entries of the rank
} else {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Merging write burst with existing queue entry\n");
// keep track of the fact that this burst effectively
// disappeared as it was merged with an existing one
// Starting address of next dram pkt (aligend to burstSize boundary)
addr = (addr | (burstSize - 1)) + 1;
// we do not wait for the writes to be send to the actual memory,
// but instead take responsibility for the consistency here and
// snoop the write queue for any upcoming reads
// @todo, if a pkt size is larger than burst size, we might need a
// different front end latency
accessAndRespond(pkt, frontendLatency);
// If we are not already scheduled to get a request out of the
// queue, do so now
if (!nextReqEvent.scheduled()) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Request scheduled immediately\n");
schedule(nextReqEvent, curTick());
DRAMCtrl::printQs() const {
for (auto i = readQueue.begin() ; i != readQueue.end() ; ++i) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Read %lu\n", (*i)->addr);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "\n===RESP QUEUE===\n\n");
for (auto i = respQueue.begin() ; i != respQueue.end() ; ++i) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Response %lu\n", (*i)->addr);
for (auto i = writeQueue.begin() ; i != writeQueue.end() ; ++i) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Write %lu\n", (*i)->addr);
DRAMCtrl::recvTimingReq(PacketPtr pkt)
// This is where we enter from the outside world
DPRINTF(DRAM, "recvTimingReq: request %s addr %lld size %d\n",
pkt->cmdString(), pkt->getAddr(), pkt->getSize());
panic_if(pkt->cacheResponding(), "Should not see packets where cache "
"is responding");
panic_if(!(pkt->isRead() || pkt->isWrite()),
"Should only see read and writes at memory controller\n");
// Calc avg gap between requests
if (prevArrival != 0) {
totGap += curTick() - prevArrival;
prevArrival = curTick();
// Find out how many dram packets a pkt translates to
// If the burst size is equal or larger than the pkt size, then a pkt
// translates to only one dram packet. Otherwise, a pkt translates to
// multiple dram packets
unsigned size = pkt->getSize();
unsigned offset = pkt->getAddr() & (burstSize - 1);
unsigned int dram_pkt_count = divCeil(offset + size, burstSize);
// check local buffers and do not accept if full
if (pkt->isRead()) {
assert(size != 0);
if (readQueueFull(dram_pkt_count)) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Read queue full, not accepting\n");
// remember that we have to retry this port
retryRdReq = true;
return false;
} else {
addToReadQueue(pkt, dram_pkt_count);
bytesReadSys += size;
} else {
assert(size != 0);
if (writeQueueFull(dram_pkt_count)) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Write queue full, not accepting\n");
// remember that we have to retry this port
retryWrReq = true;
return false;
} else {
addToWriteQueue(pkt, dram_pkt_count);
bytesWrittenSys += size;
return true;
"processRespondEvent(): Some req has reached its readyTime\n");
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = respQueue.front();
// if a read has reached its ready-time, decrement the number of reads
// At this point the packet has been handled and there is a possibility
// to switch to low-power mode if no other packet is available
DPRINTF(DRAM, "number of read entries for rank %d is %d\n",
dram_pkt->rank, dram_pkt->rankRef.readEntries);
// counter should at least indicate one outstanding request
// for this read
assert(dram_pkt->rankRef.outstandingEvents > 0);
// read response received, decrement count
// at this moment should not have transitioned to a low-power state
assert((dram_pkt->rankRef.pwrState != PWR_SREF) &&
(dram_pkt->rankRef.pwrState != PWR_PRE_PDN) &&
(dram_pkt->rankRef.pwrState != PWR_ACT_PDN));
// track if this is the last packet before idling
// and that there are no outstanding commands to this rank
if (dram_pkt->rankRef.isQueueEmpty() &&
dram_pkt->rankRef.outstandingEvents == 0) {
// verify that there are no events scheduled
// if coming from active state, schedule power event to
// active power-down else go to precharge power-down
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d sleep at tick %d; current power state is "
"%d\n", dram_pkt->rank, curTick(), dram_pkt->rankRef.pwrState);
// default to ACT power-down unless already in IDLE state
// could be in IDLE if PRE issued before data returned
PowerState next_pwr_state = PWR_ACT_PDN;
if (dram_pkt->rankRef.pwrState == PWR_IDLE) {
next_pwr_state = PWR_PRE_PDN;
dram_pkt->rankRef.powerDownSleep(next_pwr_state, curTick());
if (dram_pkt->burstHelper) {
// it is a split packet
if (dram_pkt->burstHelper->burstsServiced ==
dram_pkt->burstHelper->burstCount) {
// we have now serviced all children packets of a system packet
// so we can now respond to the requester
// @todo we probably want to have a different front end and back
// end latency for split packets
accessAndRespond(dram_pkt->pkt, frontendLatency + backendLatency);
delete dram_pkt->burstHelper;
dram_pkt->burstHelper = NULL;
} else {
// it is not a split packet
accessAndRespond(dram_pkt->pkt, frontendLatency + backendLatency);
delete respQueue.front();
if (!respQueue.empty()) {
assert(respQueue.front()->readyTime >= curTick());
schedule(respondEvent, respQueue.front()->readyTime);
} else {
// if there is nothing left in any queue, signal a drain
if (drainState() == DrainState::Draining &&
writeQueue.empty() && readQueue.empty() && allRanksDrained()) {
DPRINTF(Drain, "DRAM controller done draining\n");
// We have made a location in the queue available at this point,
// so if there is a read that was forced to wait, retry now
if (retryRdReq) {
retryRdReq = false;
DRAMCtrl::chooseNext(std::deque<DRAMPacket*>& queue, Tick extra_col_delay)
// This method does the arbitration between requests. The chosen
// packet is simply moved to the head of the queue. The other
// methods know that this is the place to look. For example, with
// FCFS, this method does nothing
// bool to indicate if a packet to an available rank is found
bool found_packet = false;
if (queue.size() == 1) {
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = queue.front();
// available rank corresponds to state refresh idle
if (ranks[dram_pkt->rank]->inRefIdleState()) {
found_packet = true;
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Single request, going to a free rank\n");
} else {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Single request, going to a busy rank\n");
return found_packet;
if (memSchedPolicy == Enums::fcfs) {
// check if there is a packet going to a free rank
for (auto i = queue.begin(); i != queue.end() ; ++i) {
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = *i;
if (ranks[dram_pkt->rank]->inRefIdleState()) {
found_packet = true;
} else if (memSchedPolicy == Enums::frfcfs) {
found_packet = reorderQueue(queue, extra_col_delay);
} else
panic("No scheduling policy chosen\n");
return found_packet;
DRAMCtrl::reorderQueue(std::deque<DRAMPacket*>& queue, Tick extra_col_delay)
// Only determine this if needed
vector<uint32_t> earliest_banks(ranksPerChannel, 0);
// Has minBankPrep been called to populate earliest_banks?
bool filled_earliest_banks = false;
// can the PRE/ACT sequence be done without impacting utlization?
bool hidden_bank_prep = false;
// search for seamless row hits first, if no seamless row hit is
// found then determine if there are other packets that can be issued
// without incurring additional bus delay due to bank timing
// Will select closed rows first to enable more open row possibilies
// in future selections
bool found_hidden_bank = false;
// remember if we found a row hit, not seamless, but bank prepped
// and ready
bool found_prepped_pkt = false;
// if we have no row hit, prepped or not, and no seamless packet,
// just go for the earliest possible
bool found_earliest_pkt = false;
auto selected_pkt_it = queue.end();
// time we need to issue a column command to be seamless
const Tick min_col_at = std::max(nextBurstAt + extra_col_delay, curTick());
for (auto i = queue.begin(); i != queue.end() ; ++i) {
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = *i;
const Bank& bank = dram_pkt->bankRef;
const Tick col_allowed_at = dram_pkt->isRead ? bank.rdAllowedAt :
// check if rank is not doing a refresh and thus is available, if not,
// jump to the next packet
if (dram_pkt->rankRef.inRefIdleState()) {
// check if it is a row hit
if (bank.openRow == dram_pkt->row) {
// no additional rank-to-rank or same bank-group
// delays, or we switched read/write and might as well
// go for the row hit
if (col_allowed_at <= min_col_at) {
// FCFS within the hits, giving priority to
// commands that can issue seamlessly, without
// additional delay, such as same rank accesses
// and/or different bank-group accesses
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Seamless row buffer hit\n");
selected_pkt_it = i;
// no need to look through the remaining queue entries
} else if (!found_hidden_bank && !found_prepped_pkt) {
// if we did not find a packet to a closed row that can
// issue the bank commands without incurring delay, and
// did not yet find a packet to a prepped row, remember
// the current one
selected_pkt_it = i;
found_prepped_pkt = true;
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Prepped row buffer hit\n");
} else if (!found_earliest_pkt) {
// if we have not initialised the bank status, do it
// now, and only once per scheduling decisions
if (!filled_earliest_banks) {
// determine entries with earliest bank delay
std::tie(earliest_banks, hidden_bank_prep) =
minBankPrep(queue, min_col_at);
filled_earliest_banks = true;
// bank is amongst first available banks
// minBankPrep will give priority to packets that can
// issue seamlessly
if (bits(earliest_banks[dram_pkt->rank],
dram_pkt->bank, dram_pkt->bank)) {
found_earliest_pkt = true;
found_hidden_bank = hidden_bank_prep;
// give priority to packets that can issue
// bank commands 'behind the scenes'
// any additional delay if any will be due to
// col-to-col command requirements
if (hidden_bank_prep || !found_prepped_pkt)
selected_pkt_it = i;
if (selected_pkt_it != queue.end()) {
DRAMPacket* selected_pkt = *selected_pkt_it;
return true;
return false;
DRAMCtrl::accessAndRespond(PacketPtr pkt, Tick static_latency)
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Responding to Address %lld.. ",pkt->getAddr());
bool needsResponse = pkt->needsResponse();
// do the actual memory access which also turns the packet into a
// response
// turn packet around to go back to requester if response expected
if (needsResponse) {
// access already turned the packet into a response
// response_time consumes the static latency and is charged also
// with headerDelay that takes into account the delay provided by
// the xbar and also the payloadDelay that takes into account the
// number of data beats.
Tick response_time = curTick() + static_latency + pkt->headerDelay +
// Here we reset the timing of the packet before sending it out.
pkt->headerDelay = pkt->payloadDelay = 0;
// queue the packet in the response queue to be sent out after
// the static latency has passed
port.schedTimingResp(pkt, response_time, true);
} else {
// @todo the packet is going to be deleted, and the DRAMPacket
// is still having a pointer to it
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Done\n");
DRAMCtrl::activateBank(Rank& rank_ref, Bank& bank_ref,
Tick act_tick, uint32_t row)
assert(rank_ref.actTicks.size() == activationLimit);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Activate at tick %d\n", act_tick);
// update the open row
assert(bank_ref.openRow == Bank::NO_ROW);
bank_ref.openRow = row;
// start counting anew, this covers both the case when we
// auto-precharged, and when this access is forced to
// precharge
bank_ref.bytesAccessed = 0;
bank_ref.rowAccesses = 0;
assert(rank_ref.numBanksActive <= banksPerRank);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Activate bank %d, rank %d at tick %lld, now got %d active\n",, rank_ref.rank, act_tick,
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,ACT,%d,%d\n", divCeil(act_tick, tCK) -
timeStampOffset,, rank_ref.rank);
// The next access has to respect tRAS for this bank
bank_ref.preAllowedAt = act_tick + tRAS;
// Respect the row-to-column command delay for both read and write cmds
bank_ref.rdAllowedAt = std::max(act_tick + tRCD, bank_ref.rdAllowedAt);
bank_ref.wrAllowedAt = std::max(act_tick + tRCD, bank_ref.wrAllowedAt);
// start by enforcing tRRD
for (int i = 0; i < banksPerRank; i++) {
// next activate to any bank in this rank must not happen
// before tRRD
if (bankGroupArch && (bank_ref.bankgr == rank_ref.banks[i].bankgr)) {
// bank group architecture requires longer delays between
// ACT commands within the same bank group. Use tRRD_L
// in this case
rank_ref.banks[i].actAllowedAt = std::max(act_tick + tRRD_L,
} else {
// use shorter tRRD value when either
// 1) bank group architecture is not supportted
// 2) bank is in a different bank group
rank_ref.banks[i].actAllowedAt = std::max(act_tick + tRRD,
// next, we deal with tXAW, if the activation limit is disabled
// then we directly schedule an activate power event
if (!rank_ref.actTicks.empty()) {
// sanity check
if (rank_ref.actTicks.back() &&
(act_tick - rank_ref.actTicks.back()) < tXAW) {
panic("Got %d activates in window %d (%llu - %llu) which "
"is smaller than %llu\n", activationLimit, act_tick -
rank_ref.actTicks.back(), act_tick,
rank_ref.actTicks.back(), tXAW);
// shift the times used for the book keeping, the last element
// (highest index) is the oldest one and hence the lowest value
// record an new activation (in the future)
// cannot activate more than X times in time window tXAW, push the
// next one (the X + 1'st activate) to be tXAW away from the
// oldest in our window of X
if (rank_ref.actTicks.back() &&
(act_tick - rank_ref.actTicks.back()) < tXAW) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Enforcing tXAW with X = %d, next activate "
"no earlier than %llu\n", activationLimit,
rank_ref.actTicks.back() + tXAW);
for (int j = 0; j < banksPerRank; j++)
// next activate must not happen before end of window
rank_ref.banks[j].actAllowedAt =
std::max(rank_ref.actTicks.back() + tXAW,
// at the point when this activate takes place, make sure we
// transition to the active power state
if (!rank_ref.activateEvent.scheduled())
schedule(rank_ref.activateEvent, act_tick);
else if (rank_ref.activateEvent.when() > act_tick)
// move it sooner in time
reschedule(rank_ref.activateEvent, act_tick);
DRAMCtrl::prechargeBank(Rank& rank_ref, Bank& bank, Tick pre_at, bool trace)
// make sure the bank has an open row
assert(bank.openRow != Bank::NO_ROW);
// sample the bytes per activate here since we are closing
// the page
bank.openRow = Bank::NO_ROW;
// no precharge allowed before this one
bank.preAllowedAt = pre_at;
Tick pre_done_at = pre_at + tRP;
bank.actAllowedAt = std::max(bank.actAllowedAt, pre_done_at);
assert(rank_ref.numBanksActive != 0);
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Precharging bank %d, rank %d at tick %lld, now got "
"%d active\n",, rank_ref.rank, pre_at,
if (trace) {
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PRE,%d,%d\n", divCeil(pre_at, tCK) -
timeStampOffset,, rank_ref.rank);
// if we look at the current number of active banks we might be
// tempted to think the DRAM is now idle, however this can be
// undone by an activate that is scheduled to happen before we
// would have reached the idle state, so schedule an event and
// rather check once we actually make it to the point in time when
// the (last) precharge takes place
if (!rank_ref.prechargeEvent.scheduled()) {
schedule(rank_ref.prechargeEvent, pre_done_at);
// New event, increment count
} else if (rank_ref.prechargeEvent.when() < pre_done_at) {
reschedule(rank_ref.prechargeEvent, pre_done_at);
DRAMCtrl::doDRAMAccess(DRAMPacket* dram_pkt)
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Timing access to addr %lld, rank/bank/row %d %d %d\n",
dram_pkt->addr, dram_pkt->rank, dram_pkt->bank, dram_pkt->row);
// get the rank
Rank& rank = dram_pkt->rankRef;
// are we in or transitioning to a low-power state and have not scheduled
// a power-up event?
// if so, wake up from power down to issue RD/WR burst
if (rank.inLowPowerState) {
assert(rank.pwrState != PWR_SREF);
// get the bank
Bank& bank = dram_pkt->bankRef;
// for the state we need to track if it is a row hit or not
bool row_hit = true;
// Determine the access latency and update the bank state
if (bank.openRow == dram_pkt->row) {
// nothing to do
} else {
row_hit = false;
// If there is a page open, precharge it.
if (bank.openRow != Bank::NO_ROW) {
prechargeBank(rank, bank, std::max(bank.preAllowedAt, curTick()));
// next we need to account for the delay in activating the
// page
Tick act_tick = std::max(bank.actAllowedAt, curTick());
// Record the activation and deal with all the global timing
// constraints caused be a new activation (tRRD and tXAW)
activateBank(rank, bank, act_tick, dram_pkt->row);
// respect any constraints on the command (e.g. tRCD or tCCD)
const Tick col_allowed_at = dram_pkt->isRead ?
bank.rdAllowedAt : bank.wrAllowedAt;
// we need to wait until the bus is available before we can issue
// the command; need minimum of tBURST between commands
Tick cmd_at = std::max({col_allowed_at, nextBurstAt, curTick()});
// update the packet ready time
dram_pkt->readyTime = cmd_at + tCL + tBURST;
// update the time for the next read/write burst for each
// bank (add a max with tCCD/tCCD_L/tCCD_L_WR here)
Tick dly_to_rd_cmd;
Tick dly_to_wr_cmd;
for (int j = 0; j < ranksPerChannel; j++) {
for (int i = 0; i < banksPerRank; i++) {
// next burst to same bank group in this rank must not happen
// before tCCD_L. Different bank group timing requirement is
// tBURST; Add tCS for different ranks
if (dram_pkt->rank == j) {
if (bankGroupArch &&
(bank.bankgr == ranks[j]->banks[i].bankgr)) {
// bank group architecture requires longer delays between
// RD/WR burst commands to the same bank group.
// tCCD_L is default requirement for same BG timing
// tCCD_L_WR is required for write-to-write
// Need to also take bus turnaround delays into account
dly_to_rd_cmd = dram_pkt->isRead ?
tCCD_L : std::max(tCCD_L, wrToRdDly);
dly_to_wr_cmd = dram_pkt->isRead ?
std::max(tCCD_L, rdToWrDly) : tCCD_L_WR;
} else {
// tBURST is default requirement for diff BG timing
// Need to also take bus turnaround delays into account
dly_to_rd_cmd = dram_pkt->isRead ? tBURST : wrToRdDly;
dly_to_wr_cmd = dram_pkt->isRead ? rdToWrDly : tBURST;
} else {
// different rank is by default in a different bank group and
// doesn't require longer tCCD or additional RTW, WTR delays
// Need to account for rank-to-rank switching with tCS
dly_to_wr_cmd = rankToRankDly;
dly_to_rd_cmd = rankToRankDly;
ranks[j]->banks[i].rdAllowedAt = std::max(cmd_at + dly_to_rd_cmd,
ranks[j]->banks[i].wrAllowedAt = std::max(cmd_at + dly_to_wr_cmd,
// Save rank of current access
activeRank = dram_pkt->rank;
// If this is a write, we also need to respect the write recovery
// time before a precharge, in the case of a read, respect the
// read to precharge constraint
bank.preAllowedAt = std::max(bank.preAllowedAt,
dram_pkt->isRead ? cmd_at + tRTP :
dram_pkt->readyTime + tWR);
// increment the bytes accessed and the accesses per row
bank.bytesAccessed += burstSize;
// if we reached the max, then issue with an auto-precharge
bool auto_precharge = pageMgmt == Enums::close ||
bank.rowAccesses == maxAccessesPerRow;
// if we did not hit the limit, we might still want to
// auto-precharge
if (!auto_precharge &&
(pageMgmt == Enums::open_adaptive ||
pageMgmt == Enums::close_adaptive)) {
// a twist on the open and close page policies:
// 1) open_adaptive page policy does not blindly keep the
// page open, but close it if there are no row hits, and there
// are bank conflicts in the queue
// 2) close_adaptive page policy does not blindly close the
// page, but closes it only if there are no row hits in the queue.
// In this case, only force an auto precharge when there
// are no same page hits in the queue
bool got_more_hits = false;
bool got_bank_conflict = false;
// either look at the read queue or write queue
const deque<DRAMPacket*>& queue = dram_pkt->isRead ? readQueue :
auto p = queue.begin();
// make sure we are not considering the packet that we are
// currently dealing with (which is the head of the queue)
// keep on looking until we find a hit or reach the end of the queue
// 1) if a hit is found, then both open and close adaptive policies keep
// the page open
// 2) if no hit is found, got_bank_conflict is set to true if a bank
// conflict request is waiting in the queue
while (!got_more_hits && p != queue.end()) {
bool same_rank_bank = (dram_pkt->rank == (*p)->rank) &&
(dram_pkt->bank == (*p)->bank);
bool same_row = dram_pkt->row == (*p)->row;
got_more_hits |= same_rank_bank && same_row;
got_bank_conflict |= same_rank_bank && !same_row;
// auto pre-charge when either
// 1) open_adaptive policy, we have not got any more hits, and
// have a bank conflict
// 2) close_adaptive policy and we have not got any more hits
auto_precharge = !got_more_hits &&
(got_bank_conflict || pageMgmt == Enums::close_adaptive);
// DRAMPower trace command to be written
std::string mem_cmd = dram_pkt->isRead ? "RD" : "WR";
// MemCommand required for DRAMPower library
MemCommand::cmds command = (mem_cmd == "RD") ? MemCommand::RD :
// Update bus state to reflect when previous command was issued
nextBurstAt = cmd_at + tBURST;
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Access to %lld, ready at %lld next burst at %lld.\n",
dram_pkt->addr, dram_pkt->readyTime, nextBurstAt);
dram_pkt->rankRef.cmdList.push_back(Command(command, dram_pkt->bank,
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,%s,%d,%d\n", divCeil(cmd_at, tCK) -
timeStampOffset, mem_cmd, dram_pkt->bank, dram_pkt->rank);
// if this access should use auto-precharge, then we are
// closing the row after the read/write burst
if (auto_precharge) {
// if auto-precharge push a PRE command at the correct tick to the
// list used by DRAMPower library to calculate power
prechargeBank(rank, bank, std::max(curTick(), bank.preAllowedAt));
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Auto-precharged bank: %d\n", dram_pkt->bankId);
// Update the minimum timing between the requests, this is a
// conservative estimate of when we have to schedule the next
// request to not introduce any unecessary bubbles. In most cases
// we will wake up sooner than we have to.
nextReqTime = nextBurstAt - (tRP + tRCD);
// Update the stats and schedule the next request
if (dram_pkt->isRead) {
if (row_hit)
bytesReadDRAM += burstSize;
// Update latency stats
totMemAccLat += dram_pkt->readyTime - dram_pkt->entryTime;
totBusLat += tBURST;
totQLat += cmd_at - dram_pkt->entryTime;
} else {
if (row_hit)
bytesWritten += burstSize;
int busyRanks = 0;
for (auto r : ranks) {
if (!r->inRefIdleState()) {
if (r->pwrState != PWR_SREF) {
// rank is busy refreshing
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d is not available\n", r->rank);
// let the rank know that if it was waiting to drain, it
// is now done and ready to proceed
// check if we were in self-refresh and haven't started
// to transition out
if ((r->pwrState == PWR_SREF) && r->inLowPowerState) {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d is in self-refresh\n", r->rank);
// if we have commands queued to this rank and we don't have
// a minimum number of active commands enqueued,
// exit self-refresh
if (r->forceSelfRefreshExit()) {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "rank %d was in self refresh and"
" should wake up\n", r->rank);
//wake up from self-refresh
// things are brought back into action once a refresh is
// performed after self-refresh
// continue with selection for other ranks
if (busyRanks == ranksPerChannel) {
// if all ranks are refreshing wait for them to finish
// and stall this state machine without taking any further
// action, and do not schedule a new nextReqEvent
// pre-emptively set to false. Overwrite if in transitioning to
// a new state
bool switched_cmd_type = false;
if (busState != busStateNext) {
if (busState == READ) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Switching to writes after %d reads with %d reads "
"waiting\n", readsThisTime, readQueue.size());
// sample and reset the read-related stats as we are now
// transitioning to writes, and all reads are done
readsThisTime = 0;
// now proceed to do the actual writes
switched_cmd_type = true;
} else {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Switching to reads after %d writes with %d writes "
"waiting\n", writesThisTime, writeQueue.size());
writesThisTime = 0;
switched_cmd_type = true;
// update busState to match next state until next transition
busState = busStateNext;
// when we get here it is either a read or a write
if (busState == READ) {
// track if we should switch or not
bool switch_to_writes = false;
if (readQueue.empty()) {
// In the case there is no read request to go next,
// trigger writes if we have passed the low threshold (or
// if we are draining)
if (!writeQueue.empty() &&
(drainState() == DrainState::Draining ||
writeQueue.size() > writeLowThreshold)) {
switch_to_writes = true;
} else {
// check if we are drained
// not done draining until in PWR_IDLE state
// ensuring all banks are closed and
// have exited low power states
if (drainState() == DrainState::Draining &&
respQueue.empty() && allRanksDrained()) {
DPRINTF(Drain, "DRAM controller done draining\n");
// nothing to do, not even any point in scheduling an
// event for the next request
} else {
// bool to check if there is a read to a free rank
bool found_read = false;
// Figure out which read request goes next, and move it to the
// front of the read queue
// If we are changing command type, incorporate the minimum
// bus turnaround delay which will be tCS (different rank) case
found_read = chooseNext(readQueue, switched_cmd_type ? tCS : 0);
// if no read to an available rank is found then return
// at this point. There could be writes to the available ranks
// which are above the required threshold. However, to
// avoid adding more complexity to the code, return and wait
// for a refresh event to kick things into action again.
if (!found_read)
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = readQueue.front();
// At this point we're done dealing with the request
// Every respQueue which will generate an event, increment count
// sanity check
assert(dram_pkt->size <= burstSize);
assert(dram_pkt->readyTime >= curTick());
// Insert into response queue. It will be sent back to the
// requestor at its readyTime
if (respQueue.empty()) {
schedule(respondEvent, dram_pkt->readyTime);
} else {
assert(respQueue.back()->readyTime <= dram_pkt->readyTime);
// we have so many writes that we have to transition
if (writeQueue.size() > writeHighThreshold) {
switch_to_writes = true;
// switching to writes, either because the read queue is empty
// and the writes have passed the low threshold (or we are
// draining), or because the writes hit the hight threshold
if (switch_to_writes) {
// transition to writing
busStateNext = WRITE;
} else {
// bool to check if write to free rank is found
bool found_write = false;
// If we are changing command type, incorporate the minimum
// bus turnaround delay
found_write = chooseNext(writeQueue,
switched_cmd_type ? std::min(tRTW, tCS) : 0);
// if there are no writes to a rank that is available to service
// requests (i.e. rank is in refresh idle state) are found then
// return. There could be reads to the available ranks. However, to
// avoid adding more complexity to the code, return at this point and
// wait for a refresh event to kick things into action again.
if (!found_write)
DRAMPacket* dram_pkt = writeQueue.front();
// sanity check
assert(dram_pkt->size <= burstSize);
// removed write from queue, decrement count
// Schedule write done event to decrement event count
// after the readyTime has been reached
// Only schedule latest write event to minimize events
// required; only need to ensure that final event scheduled covers
// the time that writes are outstanding and bus is active
// to holdoff power-down entry events
if (!dram_pkt->rankRef.writeDoneEvent.scheduled()) {
schedule(dram_pkt->rankRef.writeDoneEvent, dram_pkt->readyTime);
// New event, increment count
} else if (dram_pkt->rankRef.writeDoneEvent.when() <
dram_pkt-> readyTime) {
reschedule(dram_pkt->rankRef.writeDoneEvent, dram_pkt->readyTime);
delete dram_pkt;
// If we emptied the write queue, or got sufficiently below the
// threshold (using the minWritesPerSwitch as the hysteresis) and
// are not draining, or we have reads waiting and have done enough
// writes, then switch to reads.
if (writeQueue.empty() ||
(writeQueue.size() + minWritesPerSwitch < writeLowThreshold &&
drainState() != DrainState::Draining) ||
(!readQueue.empty() && writesThisTime >= minWritesPerSwitch)) {
// turn the bus back around for reads again
busStateNext = READ;
// note that the we switch back to reads also in the idle
// case, which eventually will check for any draining and
// also pause any further scheduling if there is really
// nothing to do
// It is possible that a refresh to another rank kicks things back into
// action before reaching this point.
if (!nextReqEvent.scheduled())
schedule(nextReqEvent, std::max(nextReqTime, curTick()));
// If there is space available and we have writes waiting then let
// them retry. This is done here to ensure that the retry does not
// cause a nextReqEvent to be scheduled before we do so as part of
// the next request processing
if (retryWrReq && writeQueue.size() < writeBufferSize) {
retryWrReq = false;
pair<vector<uint32_t>, bool>
DRAMCtrl::minBankPrep(const deque<DRAMPacket*>& queue,
Tick min_col_at) const
Tick min_act_at = MaxTick;
vector<uint32_t> bank_mask(ranksPerChannel, 0);
// latest Tick for which ACT can occur without incurring additoinal
// delay on the data bus
const Tick hidden_act_max = std::max(min_col_at - tRCD, curTick());
// Flag condition when burst can issue back-to-back with previous burst
bool found_seamless_bank = false;
// Flag condition when bank can be opened without incurring additional
// delay on the data bus
bool hidden_bank_prep = false;
// determine if we have queued transactions targetting the
// bank in question
vector<bool> got_waiting(ranksPerChannel * banksPerRank, false);
for (const auto& p : queue) {
if (p->rankRef.inRefIdleState())
got_waiting[p->bankId] = true;
// Find command with optimal bank timing
// Will prioritize commands that can issue seamlessly.
for (int i = 0; i < ranksPerChannel; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < banksPerRank; j++) {
uint16_t bank_id = i * banksPerRank + j;
// if we have waiting requests for the bank, and it is
// amongst the first available, update the mask
if (got_waiting[bank_id]) {
// make sure this rank is not currently refreshing.
// simplistic approximation of when the bank can issue
// an activate, ignoring any rank-to-rank switching
// cost in this calculation
Tick act_at = ranks[i]->banks[j].openRow == Bank::NO_ROW ?
std::max(ranks[i]->banks[j].actAllowedAt, curTick()) :
std::max(ranks[i]->banks[j].preAllowedAt, curTick()) + tRP;
// When is the earliest the R/W burst can issue?
const Tick col_allowed_at = (busState == READ) ?
ranks[i]->banks[j].rdAllowedAt :
Tick col_at = std::max(col_allowed_at, act_at + tRCD);
// bank can issue burst back-to-back (seamlessly) with
// previous burst
bool new_seamless_bank = col_at <= min_col_at;
// if we found a new seamless bank or we have no
// seamless banks, and got a bank with an earlier
// activate time, it should be added to the bit mask
if (new_seamless_bank ||
(!found_seamless_bank && act_at <= min_act_at)) {
// if we did not have a seamless bank before, and
// we do now, reset the bank mask, also reset it
// if we have not yet found a seamless bank and
// the activate time is smaller than what we have
// seen so far
if (!found_seamless_bank &&
(new_seamless_bank || act_at < min_act_at)) {
std::fill(bank_mask.begin(), bank_mask.end(), 0);
found_seamless_bank |= new_seamless_bank;
// ACT can occur 'behind the scenes'
hidden_bank_prep = act_at <= hidden_act_max;
// set the bit corresponding to the available bank
replaceBits(bank_mask[i], j, j, 1);
min_act_at = act_at;
return make_pair(bank_mask, hidden_bank_prep);
DRAMCtrl::Rank::Rank(DRAMCtrl& _memory, const DRAMCtrlParams* _p, int rank)
: EventManager(&_memory), memory(_memory),
pwrStateTrans(PWR_IDLE), pwrStatePostRefresh(PWR_IDLE),
pwrStateTick(0), refreshDueAt(0), pwrState(PWR_IDLE),
refreshState(REF_IDLE), inLowPowerState(false), rank(rank),
readEntries(0), writeEntries(0), outstandingEvents(0),
wakeUpAllowedAt(0), power(_p, false), banks(_p->banks_per_rank),
numBanksActive(0), actTicks(_p->activation_limit, 0),
writeDoneEvent([this]{ processWriteDoneEvent(); }, name()),
activateEvent([this]{ processActivateEvent(); }, name()),
prechargeEvent([this]{ processPrechargeEvent(); }, name()),
refreshEvent([this]{ processRefreshEvent(); }, name()),
powerEvent([this]{ processPowerEvent(); }, name()),
wakeUpEvent([this]{ processWakeUpEvent(); }, name())
for (int b = 0; b < _p->banks_per_rank; b++) {
banks[b].bank = b;
// GDDR addressing of banks to BG is linear.
// Here we assume that all DRAM generations address bank groups as
// follows:
if (_p->bank_groups_per_rank > 0) {
// Simply assign lower bits to bank group in order to
// rotate across bank groups as banks are incremented
// e.g. with 4 banks per bank group and 16 banks total:
// banks 0,4,8,12 are in bank group 0
// banks 1,5,9,13 are in bank group 1
// banks 2,6,10,14 are in bank group 2
// banks 3,7,11,15 are in bank group 3
banks[b].bankgr = b % _p->bank_groups_per_rank;
} else {
// No bank groups; simply assign to bank number
banks[b].bankgr = b;
DRAMCtrl::Rank::startup(Tick ref_tick)
assert(ref_tick > curTick());
pwrStateTick = curTick();
// kick off the refresh, and give ourselves enough time to
// precharge
schedule(refreshEvent, ref_tick);
// Update the stats
// don't automatically transition back to LP state after next REF
pwrStatePostRefresh = PWR_IDLE;
DRAMCtrl::Rank::isQueueEmpty() const
// check commmands in Q based on current bus direction
bool no_queued_cmds = ((memory.busStateNext == READ) && (readEntries == 0))
|| ((memory.busStateNext == WRITE) &&
(writeEntries == 0));
return no_queued_cmds;
// if this rank was waiting to drain it is now able to proceed to
// precharge
if (refreshState == REF_DRAIN) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Refresh drain done, now precharging\n");
refreshState = REF_PD_EXIT;
// hand control back to the refresh event loop
schedule(refreshEvent, curTick());
// at the moment sort the list of commands and update the counters
// for DRAMPower libray when doing a refresh
sort(cmdList.begin(), cmdList.end(), DRAMCtrl::sortTime);
auto next_iter = cmdList.begin();
// push to commands to DRAMPower
for ( ; next_iter != cmdList.end() ; ++next_iter) {
Command cmd = *next_iter;
if (cmd.timeStamp <= curTick()) {
// Move all commands at or before curTick to DRAMPower
divCeil(cmd.timeStamp, memory.tCK) -
} else {
// done - found all commands at or before curTick()
// next_iter references the 1st command after curTick
// reset cmdList to only contain commands after curTick
// if there are no commands after curTick, updated cmdList will be empty
// in this case, next_iter is cmdList.end()
cmdList.assign(next_iter, cmdList.end());
// we should transition to the active state as soon as any bank is active
if (pwrState != PWR_ACT)
// note that at this point numBanksActive could be back at
// zero again due to a precharge scheduled in the future
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_ACT, curTick());
// counter should at least indicate one outstanding request
// for this precharge
assert(outstandingEvents > 0);
// precharge complete, decrement count
// if we reached zero, then special conditions apply as we track
// if all banks are precharged for the power models
if (numBanksActive == 0) {
// no reads to this rank in the Q and no pending
// RD/WR or refresh commands
if (isQueueEmpty() && outstandingEvents == 0) {
// should still be in ACT state since bank still open
assert(pwrState == PWR_ACT);
// All banks closed - switch to precharge power down state.
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d sleep at tick %d\n",
rank, curTick());
powerDownSleep(PWR_PRE_PDN, curTick());
} else {
// we should transition to the idle state when the last bank
// is precharged
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_IDLE, curTick());
// counter should at least indicate one outstanding request
// for this write
assert(outstandingEvents > 0);
// Write transfer on bus has completed
// decrement per rank counter
// when first preparing the refresh, remember when it was due
if ((refreshState == REF_IDLE) || (refreshState == REF_SREF_EXIT)) {
// remember when the refresh is due
refreshDueAt = curTick();
// proceed to drain
refreshState = REF_DRAIN;
// make nonzero while refresh is pending to ensure
// power down and self-refresh are not entered
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Refresh due\n");
// let any scheduled read or write to the same rank go ahead,
// after which it will
// hand control back to this event loop
if (refreshState == REF_DRAIN) {
// if a request is at the moment being handled and this request is
// accessing the current rank then wait for it to finish
if ((rank == memory.activeRank)
&& (memory.nextReqEvent.scheduled())) {
// hand control over to the request loop until it is
// evaluated next
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Refresh awaiting draining\n");
} else {
refreshState = REF_PD_EXIT;
// at this point, ensure that rank is not in a power-down state
if (refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT) {
// if rank was sleeping and we have't started exit process,
// wake-up for refresh
if (inLowPowerState) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Wake Up for refresh\n");
// save state and return after refresh completes
} else {
refreshState = REF_PRE;
// at this point, ensure that all banks are precharged
if (refreshState == REF_PRE) {
// precharge any active bank
if (numBanksActive != 0) {
// at the moment, we use a precharge all even if there is
// only a single bank open
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Precharging all\n");
// first determine when we can precharge
Tick pre_at = curTick();
for (auto &b : banks) {
// respect both causality and any existing bank
// constraints, some banks could already have a
// (auto) precharge scheduled
pre_at = std::max(b.preAllowedAt, pre_at);
// make sure all banks per rank are precharged, and for those that
// already are, update their availability
Tick act_allowed_at = pre_at + memory.tRP;
for (auto &b : banks) {
if (b.openRow != Bank::NO_ROW) {
memory.prechargeBank(*this, b, pre_at, false);
} else {
b.actAllowedAt = std::max(b.actAllowedAt, act_allowed_at);
b.preAllowedAt = std::max(b.preAllowedAt, pre_at);
// precharge all banks in rank
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PREA, 0, pre_at));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PREA,0,%d\n",
divCeil(pre_at, memory.tCK) -
memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if ((pwrState == PWR_IDLE) && (outstandingEvents == 1)) {
// Banks are closed, have transitioned to IDLE state, and
// no outstanding ACT,RD/WR,Auto-PRE sequence scheduled
DPRINTF(DRAM, "All banks already precharged, starting refresh\n");
// go ahead and kick the power state machine into gear since
// we are already idle
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_REF, curTick());
} else {
// banks state is closed but haven't transitioned pwrState to IDLE
// or have outstanding ACT,RD/WR,Auto-PRE sequence scheduled
// should have outstanding precharge event in this case
// will start refresh when pwrState transitions to IDLE
assert(numBanksActive == 0);
// wait for all banks to be precharged, at which point the
// power state machine will transition to the idle state, and
// automatically move to a refresh, at that point it will also
// call this method to get the refresh event loop going again
// last but not least we perform the actual refresh
if (refreshState == REF_START) {
// should never get here with any banks active
assert(numBanksActive == 0);
assert(pwrState == PWR_REF);
Tick ref_done_at = curTick() + memory.tRFC;
for (auto &b : banks) {
b.actAllowedAt = ref_done_at;
// at the moment this affects all ranks
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::REF, 0, curTick()));
// Update the stats
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,REF,0,%d\n", divCeil(curTick(), memory.tCK) -
memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
// Update for next refresh
refreshDueAt += memory.tREFI;
// make sure we did not wait so long that we cannot make up
// for it
if (refreshDueAt < ref_done_at) {
fatal("Refresh was delayed so long we cannot catch up\n");
// Run the refresh and schedule event to transition power states
// when refresh completes
refreshState = REF_RUN;
schedule(refreshEvent, ref_done_at);
if (refreshState == REF_RUN) {
// should never get here with any banks active
assert(numBanksActive == 0);
assert(pwrState == PWR_REF);
if ((memory.drainState() == DrainState::Draining) ||
(memory.drainState() == DrainState::Drained)) {
// if draining, do not re-enter low-power mode.
// simply go to IDLE and wait
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_IDLE, curTick());
} else {
// At the moment, we sleep when the refresh ends and wait to be
// woken up again if previously in a low-power state.
if (pwrStatePostRefresh != PWR_IDLE) {
// power State should be power Refresh
assert(pwrState == PWR_REF);
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d sleeping after refresh and was in "
"power state %d before refreshing\n", rank,
powerDownSleep(pwrState, curTick());
// Force PRE power-down if there are no outstanding commands
// in Q after refresh.
} else if (isQueueEmpty()) {
// still have refresh event outstanding but there should
// be no other events outstanding
assert(outstandingEvents == 1);
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d sleeping after refresh but was NOT"
" in a low power state before refreshing\n", rank);
powerDownSleep(PWR_PRE_PDN, curTick());
} else {
// move to the idle power state once the refresh is done, this
// will also move the refresh state machine to the refresh
// idle state
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_IDLE, curTick());
// At this point, we have completed the current refresh.
// In the SREF bypass case, we do not get to this state in the
// refresh STM and therefore can always schedule next event.
// Compensate for the delay in actually performing the refresh
// when scheduling the next one
schedule(refreshEvent, refreshDueAt - memory.tRP);
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Refresh done at %llu and next refresh"
" at %llu\n", curTick(), refreshDueAt);
DRAMCtrl::Rank::schedulePowerEvent(PowerState pwr_state, Tick tick)
// respect causality
assert(tick >= curTick());
if (!powerEvent.scheduled()) {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Scheduling power event at %llu to state %d\n",
tick, pwr_state);
// insert the new transition
pwrStateTrans = pwr_state;
schedule(powerEvent, tick);
} else {
panic("Scheduled power event at %llu to state %d, "
"with scheduled event at %llu to %d\n", tick, pwr_state,
powerEvent.when(), pwrStateTrans);
DRAMCtrl::Rank::powerDownSleep(PowerState pwr_state, Tick tick)
// if low power state is active low, schedule to active low power state.
// in reality tCKE is needed to enter active low power. This is neglected
// here and could be added in the future.
if (pwr_state == PWR_ACT_PDN) {
schedulePowerEvent(pwr_state, tick);
// push command to DRAMPower
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PDN_F_ACT, 0, tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PDN_F_ACT,0,%d\n", divCeil(tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if (pwr_state == PWR_PRE_PDN) {
// if low power state is precharge low, schedule to precharge low
// power state. In reality tCKE is needed to enter active low power.
// This is neglected here.
schedulePowerEvent(pwr_state, tick);
//push Command to DRAMPower
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PDN_F_PRE, 0, tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PDN_F_PRE,0,%d\n", divCeil(tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if (pwr_state == PWR_REF) {
// if a refresh just occurred
// transition to PRE_PDN now that all banks are closed
// precharge power down requires tCKE to enter. For simplicity
// this is not considered.
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_PRE_PDN, tick);
//push Command to DRAMPower
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PDN_F_PRE, 0, tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PDN_F_PRE,0,%d\n", divCeil(tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if (pwr_state == PWR_SREF) {
// should only enter SREF after PRE-PD wakeup to do a refresh
assert(pwrStatePostRefresh == PWR_PRE_PDN);
// self refresh requires time tCKESR to enter. For simplicity,
// this is not considered.
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_SREF, tick);
// push Command to DRAMPower
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::SREN, 0, tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,SREN,0,%d\n", divCeil(tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
// Ensure that we don't power-down and back up in same tick
// Once we commit to PD entry, do it and wait for at least 1tCK
// This could be replaced with tCKE if/when that is added to the model
wakeUpAllowedAt = tick + memory.tCK;
// Transitioning to a low power state, set flag
inLowPowerState = true;
DRAMCtrl::Rank::scheduleWakeUpEvent(Tick exit_delay)
Tick wake_up_tick = std::max(curTick(), wakeUpAllowedAt);
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Scheduling wake-up for rank %d at tick %d\n",
rank, wake_up_tick);
// if waking for refresh, hold previous state
// else reset state back to IDLE
if (refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT) {
pwrStatePostRefresh = pwrState;
} else {
// don't automatically transition back to LP state after next REF
pwrStatePostRefresh = PWR_IDLE;
// schedule wake-up with event to ensure entry has completed before
// we try to wake-up
schedule(wakeUpEvent, wake_up_tick);
for (auto &b : banks) {
// respect both causality and any existing bank
// constraints, some banks could already have a
// (auto) precharge scheduled
b.wrAllowedAt = std::max(wake_up_tick + exit_delay, b.wrAllowedAt);
b.rdAllowedAt = std::max(wake_up_tick + exit_delay, b.rdAllowedAt);
b.preAllowedAt = std::max(wake_up_tick + exit_delay, b.preAllowedAt);
b.actAllowedAt = std::max(wake_up_tick + exit_delay, b.actAllowedAt);
// Transitioning out of low power state, clear flag
inLowPowerState = false;
// push to DRAMPower
// use pwrStateTrans for cases where we have a power event scheduled
// to enter low power that has not yet been processed
if (pwrStateTrans == PWR_ACT_PDN) {
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PUP_ACT, 0, wake_up_tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PUP_ACT,0,%d\n", divCeil(wake_up_tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if (pwrStateTrans == PWR_PRE_PDN) {
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::PUP_PRE, 0, wake_up_tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,PUP_PRE,0,%d\n", divCeil(wake_up_tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
} else if (pwrStateTrans == PWR_SREF) {
cmdList.push_back(Command(MemCommand::SREX, 0, wake_up_tick));
DPRINTF(DRAMPower, "%llu,SREX,0,%d\n", divCeil(wake_up_tick,
memory.tCK) - memory.timeStampOffset, rank);
// Should be in a power-down or self-refresh state
assert((pwrState == PWR_ACT_PDN) || (pwrState == PWR_PRE_PDN) ||
(pwrState == PWR_SREF));
// Check current state to determine transition state
if (pwrState == PWR_ACT_PDN) {
// banks still open, transition to PWR_ACT
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_ACT, curTick());
} else {
// transitioning from a precharge power-down or self-refresh state
// banks are closed - transition to PWR_IDLE
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_IDLE, curTick());
assert(curTick() >= pwrStateTick);
// remember where we were, and for how long
Tick duration = curTick() - pwrStateTick;
PowerState prev_state = pwrState;
// update the accounting
pwrStateTime[prev_state] += duration;
// track to total idle time
if ((prev_state == PWR_PRE_PDN) || (prev_state == PWR_ACT_PDN) ||
(prev_state == PWR_SREF)) {
totalIdleTime += duration;
pwrState = pwrStateTrans;
pwrStateTick = curTick();
// if rank was refreshing, make sure to start scheduling requests again
if (prev_state == PWR_REF) {
// bus IDLED prior to REF
// counter should be one for refresh command only
assert(outstandingEvents == 1);
// REF complete, decrement count and go back to IDLE
refreshState = REF_IDLE;
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Was refreshing for %llu ticks\n", duration);
// if moving back to power-down after refresh
if (pwrState != PWR_IDLE) {
assert(pwrState == PWR_PRE_PDN);
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Switching to power down state after refreshing"
" rank %d at %llu tick\n", rank, curTick());
// completed refresh event, ensure next request is scheduled
if (!memory.nextReqEvent.scheduled()) {
DPRINTF(DRAM, "Scheduling next request after refreshing"
" rank %d\n", rank);
schedule(memory.nextReqEvent, curTick());
if ((pwrState == PWR_ACT) && (refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT)) {
// have exited ACT PD
assert(prev_state == PWR_ACT_PDN);
// go back to REF event and close banks
refreshState = REF_PRE;
schedule(refreshEvent, curTick());
} else if (pwrState == PWR_IDLE) {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "All banks precharged\n");
if (prev_state == PWR_SREF) {
// set refresh state to REF_SREF_EXIT, ensuring inRefIdleState
// continues to return false during tXS after SREF exit
// Schedule a refresh which kicks things back into action
// when it finishes
refreshState = REF_SREF_EXIT;
schedule(refreshEvent, curTick() + memory.tXS);
} else {
// if we have a pending refresh, and are now moving to
// the idle state, directly transition to, or schedule refresh
if ((refreshState == REF_PRE) || (refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT)) {
// ensure refresh is restarted only after final PRE command.
// do not restart refresh if controller is in an intermediate
// state, after PRE_PDN exit, when banks are IDLE but an
// ACT is scheduled.
if (!activateEvent.scheduled()) {
// there should be nothing waiting at this point
if (refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT) {
// exiting PRE PD, will be in IDLE until tXP expires
// and then should transition to PWR_REF state
assert(prev_state == PWR_PRE_PDN);
schedulePowerEvent(PWR_REF, curTick() + memory.tXP);
} else if (refreshState == REF_PRE) {
// can directly move to PWR_REF state and proceed below
pwrState = PWR_REF;
} else {
// must have PRE scheduled to transition back to IDLE
// and re-kick off refresh
// transition to the refresh state and re-start refresh process
// refresh state machine will schedule the next power state transition
if (pwrState == PWR_REF) {
// completed final PRE for refresh or exiting power-down
assert(refreshState == REF_PRE || refreshState == REF_PD_EXIT);
// exited PRE PD for refresh, with no pending commands
// bypass auto-refresh and go straight to SREF, where memory
// will issue refresh immediately upon entry
if (pwrStatePostRefresh == PWR_PRE_PDN && isQueueEmpty() &&
(memory.drainState() != DrainState::Draining) &&
(memory.drainState() != DrainState::Drained)) {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Rank %d bypassing refresh and transitioning "
"to self refresh at %11u tick\n", rank, curTick());
powerDownSleep(PWR_SREF, curTick());
// Since refresh was bypassed, remove event by decrementing count
assert(outstandingEvents == 1);
// reset state back to IDLE temporarily until SREF is entered
pwrState = PWR_IDLE;
// Not bypassing refresh for SREF entry
} else {
DPRINTF(DRAMState, "Refreshing\n");
// there should be nothing waiting at this point
// kick the refresh event loop into action again, and that
// in turn will schedule a transition to the idle power
// state once the refresh is done
schedule(refreshEvent, curTick());
// Banks transitioned to IDLE, start REF
refreshState = REF_START;
// All commands up to refresh have completed
// flush cmdList to DRAMPower
// Call the function that calculates window energy at intermediate update
// events like at refresh, stats dump as well as at simulation exit.
// Window starts at the last time the calcWindowEnergy function was called
// and is upto current time.
power.powerlib.calcWindowEnergy(divCeil(curTick(), memory.tCK) -
// Get the energy from DRAMPower
Data::MemoryPowerModel::Energy energy = power.powerlib.getEnergy();
// The energy components inside the power lib are calculated over
// the window so accumulate into the corresponding gem5 stat
actEnergy += energy.act_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
preEnergy += energy.pre_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
readEnergy += energy.read_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
writeEnergy += energy.write_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
refreshEnergy += energy.ref_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
actBackEnergy += energy.act_stdby_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
preBackEnergy += energy.pre_stdby_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
actPowerDownEnergy += energy.f_act_pd_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
prePowerDownEnergy += energy.f_pre_pd_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
selfRefreshEnergy += energy.sref_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
// Accumulate window energy into the total energy.
totalEnergy += energy.window_energy * memory.devicesPerRank;
// Average power must not be accumulated but calculated over the time
// since last stats reset. SimClock::Frequency is tick period not tick
// frequency.
// energy (pJ) 1e-9
// power (mW) = ----------- * ----------
// time (tick) tick_frequency
averagePower = (totalEnergy.value() /
(curTick() - memory.lastStatsResetTick)) *
(SimClock::Frequency / 1000000000.0);
DPRINTF(DRAM,"Computing stats due to a dump callback\n");
// Update the stats
// final update of power state times
pwrStateTime[pwrState] += (curTick() - pwrStateTick);
pwrStateTick = curTick();
DRAMCtrl::Rank::resetStats() {
// The only way to clear the counters in DRAMPower is to call
// calcWindowEnergy function as that then calls clearCounters. The
// clearCounters method itself is private.
power.powerlib.calcWindowEnergy(divCeil(curTick(), memory.tCK) -
.name(name() + ".memoryStateTime")
.desc("Time in different power states");
pwrStateTime.subname(0, "IDLE");
pwrStateTime.subname(1, "REF");
pwrStateTime.subname(2, "SREF");
pwrStateTime.subname(3, "PRE_PDN");
pwrStateTime.subname(4, "ACT");
pwrStateTime.subname(5, "ACT_PDN");
.name(name() + ".actEnergy")
.desc("Energy for activate commands per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".preEnergy")
.desc("Energy for precharge commands per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".readEnergy")
.desc("Energy for read commands per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".writeEnergy")
.desc("Energy for write commands per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".refreshEnergy")
.desc("Energy for refresh commands per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".actBackEnergy")
.desc("Energy for active background per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".preBackEnergy")
.desc("Energy for precharge background per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".actPowerDownEnergy")
.desc("Energy for active power-down per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".prePowerDownEnergy")
.desc("Energy for precharge power-down per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".selfRefreshEnergy")
.desc("Energy for self refresh per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".totalEnergy")
.desc("Total energy per rank (pJ)");
.name(name() + ".averagePower")
.desc("Core power per rank (mW)");
.name(name() + ".totalIdleTime")
.desc("Total Idle time Per DRAM Rank");
Stats::registerDumpCallback(new RankDumpCallback(this));
Stats::registerResetCallback(new RankResetCallback(this));
using namespace Stats;
for (auto r : ranks) {
registerResetCallback(new MemResetCallback(this));
.name(name() + ".readReqs")
.desc("Number of read requests accepted");
.name(name() + ".writeReqs")
.desc("Number of write requests accepted");
.name(name() + ".readBursts")
.desc("Number of DRAM read bursts, "
"including those serviced by the write queue");
.name(name() + ".writeBursts")
.desc("Number of DRAM write bursts, "
"including those merged in the write queue");
.name(name() + ".servicedByWrQ")
.desc("Number of DRAM read bursts serviced by the write queue");
.name(name() + ".mergedWrBursts")
.desc("Number of DRAM write bursts merged with an existing one");
.name(name() + ".neitherReadNorWriteReqs")
.desc("Number of requests that are neither read nor write");
.init(banksPerRank * ranksPerChannel)
.name(name() + ".perBankRdBursts")
.desc("Per bank write bursts");
.init(banksPerRank * ranksPerChannel)
.name(name() + ".perBankWrBursts")
.desc("Per bank write bursts");
.name(name() + ".avgRdQLen")
.desc("Average read queue length when enqueuing")
.name(name() + ".avgWrQLen")
.desc("Average write queue length when enqueuing")
.name(name() + ".totQLat")
.desc("Total ticks spent queuing");
.name(name() + ".totBusLat")
.desc("Total ticks spent in databus transfers");
.name(name() + ".totMemAccLat")
.desc("Total ticks spent from burst creation until serviced "
"by the DRAM");
.name(name() + ".avgQLat")
.desc("Average queueing delay per DRAM burst")
avgQLat = totQLat / (readBursts - servicedByWrQ);
.name(name() + ".avgBusLat")
.desc("Average bus latency per DRAM burst")
avgBusLat = totBusLat / (readBursts - servicedByWrQ);
.name(name() + ".avgMemAccLat")
.desc("Average memory access latency per DRAM burst")
avgMemAccLat = totMemAccLat / (readBursts - servicedByWrQ);
.name(name() + ".numRdRetry")
.desc("Number of times read queue was full causing retry");
.name(name() + ".numWrRetry")
.desc("Number of times write queue was full causing retry");
.name(name() + ".readRowHits")
.desc("Number of row buffer hits during reads");
.name(name() + ".writeRowHits")
.desc("Number of row buffer hits during writes");
.name(name() + ".readRowHitRate")
.desc("Row buffer hit rate for reads")
readRowHitRate = (readRowHits / (readBursts - servicedByWrQ)) * 100;
.name(name() + ".writeRowHitRate")
.desc("Row buffer hit rate for writes")
writeRowHitRate = (writeRowHits / (writeBursts - mergedWrBursts)) * 100;
.init(ceilLog2(burstSize) + 1)
.name(name() + ".readPktSize")
.desc("Read request sizes (log2)");
.init(ceilLog2(burstSize) + 1)
.name(name() + ".writePktSize")
.desc("Write request sizes (log2)");
.name(name() + ".rdQLenPdf")
.desc("What read queue length does an incoming req see");
.name(name() + ".wrQLenPdf")
.desc("What write queue length does an incoming req see");
.name(name() + ".bytesPerActivate")
.desc("Bytes accessed per row activation")
.name(name() + ".rdPerTurnAround")
.desc("Reads before turning the bus around for writes")
.name(name() + ".wrPerTurnAround")
.desc("Writes before turning the bus around for reads")
.name(name() + ".bytesReadDRAM")
.desc("Total number of bytes read from DRAM");
.name(name() + ".bytesReadWrQ")
.desc("Total number of bytes read from write queue");
.name(name() + ".bytesWritten")
.desc("Total number of bytes written to DRAM");
.name(name() + ".bytesReadSys")
.desc("Total read bytes from the system interface side");
.name(name() + ".bytesWrittenSys")
.desc("Total written bytes from the system interface side");
.name(name() + ".avgRdBW")
.desc("Average DRAM read bandwidth in MiByte/s")
avgRdBW = (bytesReadDRAM / 1000000) / simSeconds;
.name(name() + ".avgWrBW")
.desc("Average achieved write bandwidth in MiByte/s")
avgWrBW = (bytesWritten / 1000000) / simSeconds;
.name(name() + ".avgRdBWSys")
.desc("Average system read bandwidth in MiByte/s")
avgRdBWSys = (bytesReadSys / 1000000) / simSeconds;
.name(name() + ".avgWrBWSys")
.desc("Average system write bandwidth in MiByte/s")
avgWrBWSys = (bytesWrittenSys / 1000000) / simSeconds;
.name(name() + ".peakBW")
.desc("Theoretical peak bandwidth in MiByte/s")
peakBW = (SimClock::Frequency / tBURST) * burstSize / 1000000;
.name(name() + ".busUtil")
.desc("Data bus utilization in percentage")
busUtil = (avgRdBW + avgWrBW) / peakBW * 100;
.name(name() + ".totGap")
.desc("Total gap between requests");
.name(name() + ".avgGap")
.desc("Average gap between requests")
avgGap = totGap / (readReqs + writeReqs);
// Stats for DRAM Power calculation based on Micron datasheet
.name(name() + ".busUtilRead")
.desc("Data bus utilization in percentage for reads")
busUtilRead = avgRdBW / peakBW * 100;
.name(name() + ".busUtilWrite")
.desc("Data bus utilization in percentage for writes")
busUtilWrite = avgWrBW / peakBW * 100;
.name(name() + ".pageHitRate")
.desc("Row buffer hit rate, read and write combined")
pageHitRate = (writeRowHits + readRowHits) /
(writeBursts - mergedWrBursts + readBursts - servicedByWrQ) * 100;
DRAMCtrl::recvFunctional(PacketPtr pkt)
// rely on the abstract memory
DRAMCtrl::getSlavePort(const string &if_name, PortID idx)
if (if_name != "port") {
return MemObject::getSlavePort(if_name, idx);
} else {
return port;
// if there is anything in any of our internal queues, keep track
// of that as well
if (!(writeQueue.empty() && readQueue.empty() && respQueue.empty() &&
allRanksDrained())) {
DPRINTF(Drain, "DRAM controller not drained, write: %d, read: %d,"
" resp: %d\n", writeQueue.size(), readQueue.size(),
// the only queue that is not drained automatically over time
// is the write queue, thus kick things into action if needed
if (!writeQueue.empty() && !nextReqEvent.scheduled()) {
schedule(nextReqEvent, curTick());
// also need to kick off events to exit self-refresh
for (auto r : ranks) {
// force self-refresh exit, which in turn will issue auto-refresh
if (r->pwrState == PWR_SREF) {
DPRINTF(DRAM,"Rank%d: Forcing self-refresh wakeup in drain\n",
return DrainState::Draining;
} else {
return DrainState::Drained;
DRAMCtrl::allRanksDrained() const
// true until proven false
bool all_ranks_drained = true;
for (auto r : ranks) {
// then verify that the power state is IDLE ensuring all banks are
// closed and rank is not in a low power state. Also verify that rank
// is idle from a refresh point of view.
all_ranks_drained = r->inPwrIdleState() && r->inRefIdleState() &&
return all_ranks_drained;
if (!isTimingMode && system()->isTimingMode()) {
// if we switched to timing mode, kick things into action,
// and behave as if we restored from a checkpoint
} else if (isTimingMode && !system()->isTimingMode()) {
// if we switch from timing mode, stop the refresh events to
// not cause issues with KVM
for (auto r : ranks) {
// update the mode
isTimingMode = system()->isTimingMode();
DRAMCtrl::MemoryPort::MemoryPort(const std::string& name, DRAMCtrl& _memory)
: QueuedSlavePort(name, &_memory, queue), queue(_memory, *this),
{ }
DRAMCtrl::MemoryPort::getAddrRanges() const
AddrRangeList ranges;
return ranges;
DRAMCtrl::MemoryPort::recvFunctional(PacketPtr pkt)
if (!queue.trySatisfyFunctional(pkt)) {
// Default implementation of SimpleTimingPort::recvFunctional()
// calls recvAtomic() and throws away the latency; we can save a
// little here by just not calculating the latency.
DRAMCtrl::MemoryPort::recvAtomic(PacketPtr pkt)
return memory.recvAtomic(pkt);
DRAMCtrl::MemoryPort::recvTimingReq(PacketPtr pkt)
// pass it to the memory controller
return memory.recvTimingReq(pkt);
return new DRAMCtrl(this);